Seven principles of electronic product safety protection design

Issue Time:2019-05-15
The purpose of product safety is to avoid harm to humans, animals or the environment caused by the use of products, especially to avoid harm or even death to the human body, and to reduce the potential danger of the product to an acceptable level. Therefore, the primary task of product safety design is to identify the source of the hazard and take effective measures to protect it from harm caused by humans, animals or the environment.

Combined with the characteristics of electrical products, the risks that can often occur in the use of electrical products can be divided into the following

Several categories:

1 electric shock hazard

2 Energy-related dangers

3 fire hazard

4 Risk of overheating

5 Mechanical hazards

6 Radiation hazard

7 Chemical hazards

8 Functional hazards

According to the above dangerous types, the following 7 protection ideas are given. When adopting the following protective ideas, it should be feasible in design, structurally reliable, and can be verified by experiments.

1 Principle 1:
Avoid the use of any designs, structures, materials or components that may be dangerous to avoid the presence of hazardous sources.

For example, to avoid toxic materials from harming the human body, the easiest way is to not use any toxic materials in the product.

2 Principle 2:
If the occurrence of a source of danger is unavoidable, effective isolation precautions should be taken to prevent human exposure to the source of danger or exposure to a source of danger. Isolation does not necessarily have to be done by closing or adding shielding such as fences. Maintaining the distance from the source of danger is also a special form of isolation.

For example, for electrical products, the use of electricity is unavoidable. In order to prevent electric shock accidents caused by contact with dangerous live parts, it is possible to use insulating materials to close and isolate dangerous live parts to prevent human contact with dangerous live parts. To avoid the occurrence of electric shock accidents.

3 Principle 3:
If exposure to a hazard is unavoidable, the source of energy from the hazard should be shut off before exposure to the hazard, minimizing hazards from the hazard and avoiding injury.

For example, when the projector is in use, there is a possibility that the bulb needs to be replaced after being burned out. In order to avoid an electric shock caused by touching the live part of the lamp holder when replacing the bulb, an interlock switch may be added to the cover plate once the cover is opened. The board and the interlock switch act immediately, cutting off the power supply circuit of the bulb, thereby preventing an electric shock accident caused by accidental contact with the charged lamp holder during the replacement of the bulb.

4 Principle 4:
If the source of energy of the hazard source cannot be cut off when exposed to a hazard source, then the intensity and time of the energy transmitted by the hazard source, ie the total energy delivered by the hazard source, should be limited when exposed to a hazard or exposed to a hazard source. . For example, all electrical products generate electromagnetic radiation during operation. In order to get close to it when the electrical product is working, there is no danger. If it is required to completely shield the electromagnetic radiation, it is technically and economically unrealistic. A more feasible approach is to take certain measures to ensure that the electromagnetic field strength exposed to the human body is attenuated to an acceptable level.

5 Principle 5:
For extremely dangerous sources of danger (which can cause permanent injury or even death), multiple protective measures (usually double protection) should be taken to ensure adequate backup protection against hazards.

For example, an electric shock from the human body that is subjected to grid voltage may cause disability or even death. Therefore, equipment requiring grid voltage supply must provide at least two independent protection measures to prevent human exposure to dangerous live parts and cause electric shock.

By adopting a double protection mechanism, on the one hand, the probability of occurrence of potential danger can be reduced to an acceptable level, and on the other hand, the cost of safety protection of products can be effectively controlled, so that the whole society can be maximized under the economic conditions at that time. Enjoy the improvement of life in technology products without facing too many potential dangers. This also explains the relative nature of product safety and product safety standards in one aspect.

6 Principle 6:
In the special case where the professional maintenance personnel maintain the product, or if there is a fault such as a short circuit inside the product in the case of abnormality of the product, measures can be taken to protect it.

The object of product safety protection is firstly the general user of the product (or non-professional maintenance personnel such as operators). Product safety protection requires that although the user does not undergo special hazard identification training, it is only necessary to rely on some common sense to safely use the product without a dangerous situation. But for professional maintenance personnel, the situation is slightly different. The training and professional skills of these people can avoid a considerable part of the danger for themselves and others, and they are often used for work reasons (such as when testing the internal working conditions of the equipment) ), it is necessary to bypass some common protective measures to directly observe and detect areas including dangerous parts. Therefore, for them, effective safety protection is more of a reminder. For example, use protective barriers for some hazardous moving parts rather than completely isolated to facilitate observation and operation during maintenance; provide effective warnings, signs, instructions, etc. to alert them to the presence of hazards, and so on.

7 Principle 7:
For residual hazards that cannot be eradicated for technical or economic reasons, appropriate warnings should be provided, including warning signs and detailed instructions in the instructions.

For example, in order to prevent the wrong connection of the power supply of the product, instead of adding a corresponding protection circuit in the product design, it is better to directly remind the user to pay attention to the power supply voltage. After all, in the life, the situation of different grid voltages in the daily home is almost non-existent.

These are just a few of the many protection ideas. After the electronic products are manufactured, their safety is crucial whether they are domestic or export. Therefore, a qualified safety certificate is the product pass.

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